Achmad Rizal Here,...
Hi Readers ,..
In  this chance i would like to share my experience about " My Happy Moment  ".  ^_^

It  happened when i  sat in high school. When i was young ,I entered in training center of Pencak Silat selection from my school.So i have to prepare the best increase my ability body and mentality.every single day training and training more.
This is my first Tournament , feel like nervous very much.hoho 

approximately a month later i following training centre ,the time is coming.The Tournament is begin as time  as opening ceremony   starting in a while. Many participants following this tournament of Pencak Silat.Before fight i start to warming my body and meditation for prepare my mentality in  order to i can keep calm when i face to face with my enemy.

Suddenly, my name is called by red corner.and time by time i fighting my enemy ,the end i won my tournament.and this is become my first winning from the Pencak SIlat Tournament. ^_^

I think enough from me if i have mistakes from my writing apologize me........     

Hello, My name is Achmad . In this chance i would like to tell my frightened moment when i got sleep paralysis.
"I first experienced sleep paralysis when I was 16'".
"I remember it vividly. I went to bed one night as usual, but at some point I woke up and was unable to move a muscle. I was conscious and aware that I was in my bed, but my entire body was paralysed.

"It may have only lasted a matter of seconds, but the experience was terrifying. There was a ringing noise in my ears that seemed to get louder, and no matter how hard I struggled, I couldn't move. I had a feeling of immense panic, and an urgent need to move my arms and legs.
"Then suddenly I could move again. While this was a great relief, I was still scared as I had no idea what had just happened.
"The same thing happened again a few nights later, and then it began to happen regularly. Often, it would happen a couple of times in the same night.
"I became nervous about going to sleep – worried that every time I went to bed I’d wake up and be unable to move. Even though the paralysis was only temporary, it was very frightening.
"Often, I would wake up suddenly after having a vivid dream. Sometimes this was an unpleasant dream, which made the experience even scarier.
"I didn’t tell anybody about it at first. This was partly because I began to doubt that it was really happening. I thought perhaps I was dreaming it, and although it seemed very real at the time, perhaps it was just a nightmare in which I couldn’t move.
"Also, it happened as I was falling asleep early in the night. By the time I'd woken up in the morning, it didn't seem to matter so much and I tried to forget it had happened.
"Then one day at school, I overheard a friend talking about a documentary he'd seen about this very phenomenon. It was the first time I'd heard the term 'sleep paralysis', and it perfectly described what happened to me – although my friend mentioned that the people on TV had also felt a presence in the room and a pressure on their chest when they woke up, which I hadn't had.
"Knowing that it had a name was a relief. I told my parents about it, and my dad said it happened to him once when he was younger. My mum has since said it once happened to her too.
"My mum then told our GP, who said it was nothing to worry about and that little was really known about it. The GP did say she thought it may be linked to stress.
"The sleep paralysis kept happening, but I no longer felt so panicked by it. It was still very unpleasant and I had a desperate need to move every time I woke up, but I just told myself that it was nothing sinister and I’d be able to move in a few seconds.
"And then it stopped happening, almost overnight, when I went to university. It's odd, but it seemed to happen only when I was in my bed at home. After I left, it virtually disappeared.
"It does happen now, but only extremely rarely. It can still be frightening, mainly because of the disorientation you feel when you suddenly wake up and can't move. But knowing what's happening and that it's nothing to worry about makes it bearable, and I'm usually able to relax and get back to sleep quickly."
What Is SPEAKING by Dr.Hymes in Sociolinguistics contexts. Dr.Hymes as sociolinguist he was developed the following model to promote the analysis of discourse as a series of speech events and speech acts within a cultural context.

It uses the first letters of terms for speech components; the categories are so productive and powerful in analysis that you can use this model to analyze many different kinds of discourse. Mr. McGowan patricularly enjoys applying this model to storytelling.


[S] Setting and Scene
"Setting refers to the time and place of a speech act and, in general, to the physical circumstances" (Hymes 55).The living room in the grandparents' home might be a setting for a family story.
Scene is the "psychological setting" or "cultural definition" of a scene, including characteristics such as range of formality and sense of play or seriousness (Hymes 55-56). The family story may be told at a reunion celebrating the grandparents' anniversary. At times, the family would be festive and playful; at other times, serious and commemorative.

[P] Participants
Speaker and audience. Linguists will make distinctions within these categories; for example, the audience can be distinguished as addressees and other hearers (Hymes 54 & 56). At the family reunion, an aunt might tell a story to the young female relatives, but males, although not addressed, might also hear the narrative.

[E] Ends
Purposes, goals, and outcomes (Hymes 56-57). The aunt may tell a story about the grandmother to entertain the audience, teach the young women, and honor the grandmother.

[A] Act Sequence
Form and order of the event. The aunt's story might begin as a response to a toast to the grandmother. The story's plot and development would have a sequence structured by the aunt. Possibly there would be a collaborative interruption during the telling. Finally, the group might applaud the tale and move onto another subject or activity.

[K] Key
Cues that establish the "tone, manner, or spirit" of the speech act (Hymes 57). The aunt might imitate the grandmother's voice and gestures in a playful way, or she might address the group in a serious voice emphasing the sincerity and respect of the praise the story expresses.

[I] Instrumentalities
Forms and styles of speech (Hymes 58-60). The aunt might speak in a casual register with many dialect features or might use a more formal register and careful grammatical "standard" forms.

[N] Norms
Social rules governing the event and the participants' actions and reaction. In a playful story by the aunt, the norms might allow many audience interruptions and collaboration, or possibly those interruptions might be limited to participation by older females. A serious, formal story by the aunt might call for attention to her and no interruptions as norms.

[G] Genre
The kind of speech act or event; for our course, the kind of story. The aunt might tell a character anecdote about the grandmother for entertainment, but an exemplum as moral instruction. Different disciplines develop terms for kinds of speech acts, and speech communities sometimes have their own terms for types.

These terms SPEAKING by Dr.Hymes can be applied to many kinds of discourse. Sometimes in a written discussion you might emphasize only two or three of the letters of the mnemonic. It provides a structure for you to perceive components.

Free TOEFL test online is one of the most useful tool for your TOEFL preparation in IBT, LIA, Paper Based, and all kind of TOEFL in 2011. You can use it for train your English skill for better result. For new beginner who want to pass the TOEFL test, i suggest you to try Free TOEFL test online first before you faced the real TEST.

I hope this is helpful for you..:). Good luck and be success on your TOEFL TEST.
Tips and Trick iBT TOEFL Test, Increase Your TOEFL Score Radically. Common problem of people who failed in TOEFL test unconsciously caused by less in preparation and practice. So, in this opportunity i would like to share a view trick and tips to faced TOEFL test especially iBT TOEFL test. I hope with this tips you can pass your TOEFL test with high score.  Check this out


TOEFL iBT Tips and Trick:
  1. Build your vocabulary base.
  2. Read everyday at least 45 minutes everyday nonstop.
  3. Do not read TOEFL type topics. Read a 300 page book every week.
  4. Learn reading strategies.
  5. Take a look at the actual title.
  6. ID the thesis . Last line of the 1st paragraph on the essay is a normal place to find this.
  7. Skim for a word that is being repeated over and over.
  8. TOEFL score of 560 on the paper test is about the same score as 81 on the Internet test.
  9. A typical American university student has a command of about 20,000 English words when entering university.
  10. Try to practice Free TOEFL Test Online
TOEFL Writing Tips – most common mistakes
  1. ‘singular/plural’ – He had been here for six months.
  2. ‘word form’ – I saw a beauty picture.
  3. ‘word choice’ – She got on the taxi.
  4. ‘verb tense’ – He is here since June. – He has been here since June.
  5. Try to avoid run-on sentences. Keep it down to 2-3 dependent clauses.
  6. Word order. ‘I work late never’. Place the adverb between the subject and the verb.
  7. Incomplete sentences. ‘I went to university’. ‘Because I want to get my degree’.
    Do not put a comma before because when connecting the clauses. That is a major no-no.
    You can however use a comma when 'because' starts a sentence.
TOEFL Essay Tips - There are 5 essay topics.
  1. ‘agree/disagree’- Parents are the best teachers. Only people who earn a lot of money are successful.
  2. ‘preference’ –
    Some people prefer to study alone while others prefer to study in groups. What do you prefer?
    Some people prefer to spend time indoors, while other prefer to spend time outdoors. What do you prefer?
  3. ‘if/imaginary’
    If you could visit any country in the world, which one would you prefer?
    If you could meet any person in the world, who would you prefer to meet?
  4. ‘description/explanation’
    What are the characteristics of a good neighbor?
  5. ‘Comparison and contrast’ – A specific essay pattern with 5 paragraphs including the introduction and conclusion. An example might be what the advantages or disadvantages of living on or off campus are. Reason 1 might be on campus. Reason 2 off. Reason 3 your analysis.
    Paragraph bodies:
    2st paragraph – Reason 1
    3nd paragraph – Reason 2
    4rd paragraph – Reason 3

What Is Natural Approach Method ?. Definition of The Natural approach is one of the communicative approaches to language teaching of the present time. It is based on the work of Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen who published their book The Natural Approach in 1983. The book contains theoretical parts with regard to second language acquisition theory prepared by Krashen, as well as sections on classroom implementations prepared by Terrell.


The natural approach is one of the, "language teaching methods based on observation and interpretation of how learners acquire both first and second languages in nonformal settings." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 190) Krashen and Terrell saw the approach as a, "traditional approach to language teaching [because it is] based on the use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 178)

The approach focuses on input, comprehension, and meaningful communication and puts less emphasis on grammar, teacher monologues, direct repetition and accuracy.


With regard to language, Krashen and Terrell place emphasis on the primacy of meaning and communication. In contrast to grammar, which does not require special attention or analysis, vocabulary plays a paramount role.

The theory as well as the design and procedures in The Natural Approach are based on Krashen's language acquisition theory. The basic principles of Krashen's theory are outlined in his Monitor Model (1982), a model of second language acquisition consisting of five hypotheses:

1. The acquisition-learning hypothesis makes a distinction between acquisition and learning. Krashen defines acquisition as, "unconscious process that involves the naturalistic development of language proficiency through understanding language and through using language for meaningful communication." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 181) Learning, on the other hand, is a conscious process in which rules of a language are developed; this process only occurs through formal teaching, and cannot lead to acquisition.

2. According to the monitor hypothesis, "the acquired system initiates a speaker's utterances and is responsible for spontaneous language use." (Lightbown & Spada 2006: 37) The learned system, by contrast, has the function of a, "monitor or editor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 181) This monitor can, "either operate post-hoc in the form of self-correction or as a last minute change of plan just before production." (Gramley & Gramley 2008: 97) Moreover there are three conditions which have a limited effect on the success of the monitor: time, focus on form and correctness, and knowledge of rules.

3. The natural order hypothesis says that, "the acquisition of grammatical structures proceeds in a predictable order." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 182) This natural order can be found in first language acquisition as well as in second language acquisition.

4. According to the input hypothesis, "acquisition occurs when one is exposed to language that is comprehensible and that contains i+1." (Lightbown & Spada 2006: 37) The "i" stands for the acquirer's current level of proficiency. He is able to move to a higher stage by understanding language containing "i+1" (where "+1" stands for language which is slightly beyond the acquirer's current level of competence).

5. The affective filter hypothesis states that there is an "affective filter" which can act as a, "barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language even when appropriate input is available." (Lightbown & Spada 2006: 37) With regard to second language acquisition affective variables can be attitudes or emotions like motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. A low affective filter is always desirable because a high affective filter, which can be found for example with anxious learners, "prevents acquisition from taking place." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 183) Krashen also tried to explain variations in success in language acquisition with this hypothesis; in particular he used it to explain the advantages of children over adults regarding language acquisition.

With regard to language teaching Krashen's hypotheses imply:
"as much comprehensible input as possible" (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 182)
materials and aids that foster comprehension
focus on reading and listening
meaningful communication and interesting input to keep the affective filter low

Activities and materials

Within a natural approach, emphasis is placed on comprehensible input, meaningful communication and a relaxed classroom atmosphere. "To minimize stress, learners are not required to say anything until they feel ready, but they are expected to respond to teacher commands and questions." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 185) There is a gradual progression from "Yes/No" and simple display questions, to more complex and open questions.

"There is nothing novel about the procedures and techniques advocated for use with the Natural Approach." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 185); familiar activities like command-based activities, situation-based activities, and group-work activities focus on, "providing comprehensible input and a classroom environment that cues comprehension of input, minimizes learner anxiety, and maximizes learner self-confidence." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 185)

Materials used in a natural approach classroom aim at making activities and tasks as meaningful as possible -- they foster comprehension and communication. Authentic materials, like brochures or maps, as well as visual aids and games are used to facilitate acquisition and to promote comprehension and real communication.

Learner and teacher roles

The learner’s role changes and develops during a natural approach course because there are various stages the learner has to go through. The first stage is the pre-production stage where the learner is not forced to respond orally and is allowed to decide on his/her own when to start to speak. The next stage, the early-production stage, fosters short answers and the student has to respond to simple questions and to use fixed conversational patterns. In the speech-emergent stage the use of complex utterances emerges, for example in role plays or games. Another important role of the language acquirer is the role of, "a processor of comprehensible input [who] is challenged by input that is slightly beyond his or her current level of competence and is able to assign meaning to this input through active use of context and extralinguistic information." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 186)

The natural approach classroom allocates a central role for the teacher; he has several important roles. First, the teacher provides a constant flow of comprehensible input in the target language and provides non-linguistic clues. Second, the teacher has to create a harmonious classroom atmosphere that fosters a low affective filter. Third, the teacher decides on the classroom activities and tasks regarding group sizes, content, contexts, and materials. Finally, the teacher is responsible to, "communicate clearly and compellingly to students the assumptions, organizations, and expectations of the method." (Richards & Rodgers 2001: 188) Krashen and Terrell point out the importance of explaining to learners what they can expect and what not of the language course.


-Gramley, S. & Gramley, V. (eds.) (2008). Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aisthesis. 
-Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned (third edition). Oxford: OUP. 
-Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching (second edition). Cambridge: CUP.
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